In Situ Electron Microscopy of Liquids (the Nanoaquarium)

nAq

Imaging bubble nucleation, growth, and departure with the nano-resolution of the electron microscope. The experiments were carried out with the nanoaquarium (left, top) and in collaboration with Dr. Frances M. Ross from the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center.

Presentations Available Online

Imaging Processes in Liquids with Nanoscale Resolution Using Graphene* 

Camri A Robinson

Abstract

Imaging dynamic processes in their native liquid states in real time at the nanoscale has been a significant challenge in electron microscopy. Observing these processes in real time, particularly biological processes, could provide essential information and insight to structural details. Typically, to capture dynamic events in real time, one must freeze a sample at a specific time during a process and take snapshots at each time. Each static image shows a single stage in the dynamic process and are later merged together to create a dynamic video, much like a flipbook makes a series of pictures appear to be animated when flipped through rapidly. Although this method has been responsible for many advances in fields such as biology, chemistry, materials science, and physics, it still does not guarantee that images are taken at the most significant moments. The nanoaquarium, developed by Joseph Grogan and Haim Bau at UPenn, allows for samples to be observed in their native liquid environments in real time using two silicon nitride membranes sandwiched together. We investigate the effects of using two graphene membranes in the fabrication of the nanoaquarium instead of the silicon nitride membranes to increase imaging resolution and contrast, leading to a better understanding of important dynamical processes.

*Presented as part of theUndergraduate Research at the Nano-Bio Interface Center (http://www.nanotech.upenn.edu/reu.html)

The Nano/Bio Interface Center (NBIC) at the University of Pennsylvania hosts a 10-week research program designed to give undergraduate students the opportunity to work with scientists on the cutting-edge of nanoscale research. NBIC capitalizes on Penn’s recognized strengths in design of molecular function and quantification of individual molecules. NBIC has led interdisciplinary, internationally recognized research around the themes of biomolecular optoelectronic function and molecular motions. Students in the NBIC summer research program work with mentors in NBIC investigators’ laboratories on projects appropriate for the duration of the program. Students gain experience with substantial aspects of doing science: experimental design, data collection and communication of results.

 

 

MRS Fall 2013 - Visualizing In Situ Electrochemical Deposition and Dendrite Growth with the Nanoaquarium

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Publications

Conference Publications & Presentations

  • Schneider, N.M., Norton, M.M., Mendel, B.J., Grogan, J.M., Ross, F.M. and Bau, H.H., “Radiolysis induced by electron beam and implications,” Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, 2014, San Francisco, CA.
  • Ross, F.M., Schneider, N.M., Park, J.H., Kodambaka, S., Steingart, D.A., and Bau, H.H., “Visualizing the effect of pulse plating during electrochemical deposition,” Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, 2014, San Francisco, CA.
  • Schneider, N.M., Park, J.H., Grogan, J.M., Kodambaka, S., Steingart, D.A., Ross, F.M. and Bau, H.H., “Visualizing In Situ Electrochemical Deposition and Dendrite Growth with the Nanoaquarium,” Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, 2013, Boston, MA. (Silver Award)
  • Park, J.H., Reuter, M.C., Schneider, N.M., Bau, H.H., Steingart, D.A., Kodambaka, S., and Ross, F.M., “The effect of Bi additives on Zn morphology imaged in situ using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy,” 2013 MRS Fall Meeting, December 2013, Boston, MA.
  • Schneider, N.M., Park, J.H., Grogan, J.M., Kodambaka, S., Steingart, D.A., Ross, F.M. and Bau, H.H., “In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrochemical Deposition, Dendrite Growth, and Etching,” 2013 IMECE Photogallery – Heat and Mass Transfer Visualization, 2013; San Diego, CA.
  • Schneider, N.M., “In Situ Electron Microscopy of Liquids with the NanoAquarium”, RIT Mechanical, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering Seminar, 2013 October 10, Rochester, NY.
  • Schneider, N.M., Grogan, J. M., Bau, H. H., “Dynamic in situ Electron Microscopy in Liquid Media,” Poster session presented at: ASME IMECE 2012 NSF Student Poster Symposium, 2012 November 9-15; Houston, TX.
  • Schneider, N.M., “Components of Transatlantic Exchange in Graduate Programs – Students’ Reports,” Conference and Workshop: Transatlantic Co-operation in Graduate Education, 2012 October 25-26, New York, German Center for Research and Innovation.
  • Schneider, N.M., Grogan, J. M., Bau, H. H., “Dynamic in situ Electron Microscopy of Liquid Systems,” Poster session presented at: NSF CMMI Engineering Research and Innovation Conference, 2012 July 9-12; Boston, MA.
  • Grogan, J. M., Schneider, N.M., Badin, S., Ross, F.M., Bau, H. H., “Dynamic in situ Electron Microscopy of Liquid Systems,” Poster session presented at: NSF CMMI Engineering Research and Innovation Conference, 2012 July 9-12; Boston, MA.
  • Schneider, N.M., Grogan, J. M., Ross, F. M., Bau, H. H., “Dynamic in situ Electron Microscopy of Liquid Systems,” Poster session presented at: The 2012 Young Researchers Transatlantic Academy, 2012 June 3-7; Aachen, Germany.
  • J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau, J. H. Park, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, F. M. Ross: Liquid Cell In-Situ Electron Microscopy: Interfacial Phenomena and Electrochemical Deposition, Microscopy & Microanalysis 2012 (July 2012), Phoenix, Arizona USA.
  • J. H. Park, J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau, S. Kodambaka, F. M. Ross: In Situ Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopic Observation of Electron Beam Induced Au Crystal Growth in a Solution, Microscopy & Microanalysis 2012 (July 2012), Phoenix, Arizona USA.
  • J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau: Real Time Electron Microscope Imaging of Nanoparticle Motion Induced by a Moving Contact Line, 64th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics (November 2011); Baltimore, Maryland USA.
  • J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau: In Situ Liquid Cell TEM/STEM with the Nanoaquarium, Microscopy & Microanalysis 2011 (August 2011); Nashville, Tennessee USA.
  • J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau: Nanoaquarium for Imaging Processes in Liquids with Electrons, 63rd Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics (November 2010); Long Beach, California USA.
  • J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau: The Nanoaquarium: A Platform for In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy in Liquid Media, Discovery to Commercialization NTI & ECI Conference (October 2010); Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA.
  • J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau: The Nanoaquarium: A Platform For in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of Processes in Liquid Media, Metro Area MEMS/NEMS Workshop: NanoManufacturing (July 2010); Hoboken, New Jersey USA.
  • J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau: A Nanoaquarium for Real-Time Imaging of Fluid and Particle Transport with Electron Microscopy, USNCTAM 2010 (July 2010); State College, Pennsylvania USA.
  • J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau: The Nanoaquarium: A Nanofluidic Platform for in situ Transmission and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, MRS Spring Meeting (April 2010); San Francisco, California USA
  • J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau: The Nanoaquarium: A nanofluidic platform for in-situ transmission electron microscopy, NanoDay (October 2009); Philadelphia Pennsylvania USA.
  • J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau: The Nanoaquarium: A nanofluidic platform for in-situ transmission electron microscopy, Discovery to Commercialization NTI & ECI Conference (October 2009); Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA.
  • N. M. Schneider, J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau, “Dynamic in situ Electron Microscopy in Liquid Media,” Poster session presented at: ASME IMECE 2012 NSF Student Poster Symposium, 2012 November 9-15; Houston, TX.
  • N. M. Schneider, J. M. Grogan, H. H. Bau, “Dynamic in situ Electron Microscopy of Liquid Systems,” Poster session presented at: NSF CMMI Engineering Research and Innovation Conference, 2012 July 9-12; Boston, MA.
  • N. M. Schneider, J. M. Grogan, F. M. Ross, H. H. Bau, “Dynamic in situ Electron Microscopy of Liquid Systems,” Poster session presented at: The 2012 Young Researchers Transatlantic Academy, 2012 June 3-7; Aachen, Germany.
  • N. M. Schneider, J. M. Grogan, J. Yuan, D. R. Williams, Y. E. Goldman, H. H. Bau, “Actin Preparation for in situ Electron Microscopy in Nanochannels,” Poster session presented at: Building Cellular Complexity One Molecule at a Time Research Retreat and Symposium, 2012 March 30; Philadelphia, PA

Videos

  • http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.3380, J. M. Grogan, F. M. Ross, H. H. Bau, “Electron Beam Artifacts in Liquid-Cell Electron Microscopy,” ArXiv e-prints, 2012 (65th APS/DFD meeting, San Diago, CA, 11/18-11/20).
  • http://arxiv.org/abs/1110.3273, J. M. Grogan and H. H. Bau, “Real Time Electron Microscope Imaging of Nanoparticle Motion Induced by a Moving Contact Line,” ArXiv e-prints, 2011 (64th APS/DFD meeting, Baltimore, MD, 11/20-11/22).
  • http://arxiv.org/abs/1010.3286, J. M. Grogan and H. H. Bau, “A Nanoaquarium for in situ Electron Microscopy in Liquid Media,” ArXiv e-prints, 2010 (63rd APS/DFD meeting, Long Beach, CA, 11/20-11/23).